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Legal: Who has the burden of proving discrimination?

The complainant must prove they are a member of a protected category, that something bad happened to them and that there is a connection between the bad thing and their protected category. The burden then shifts to the respondent to articulate a legitimate, non-discriminatory reason for what happened. At that point the burden shifts back to the complainant to show the reason given by the respondent was not the real reason, but a pretext to discriminate.

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